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For Peaceable Humans, Don’t Look to Prehistory

News in Frühzeit des Menschen Noch keine Kommentare »

Archaeology has finally laid to rest the idea that earlier human societies were completely peaceful. Melvin Konner on new evidence.


[IMG]https://si.wsj.net/public/resources/images/BN-OS726_MINDMA_12S_20160630170622.jpg[/IMG]
Illustration: Tim Lahan

Along a river in northern Germany, thousands of men lined up for a pitched battle. Some had come great distances, determined to seize or hold this modest waterway. They went at it mercilessly, leaving hundreds dead, many shot in the back while fleeing. Victory was decisive.

World War II? Perhaps the Napoleonic Wars? The 30 Years’ War?

Actually, you won’t find this battle in any history book. It happened around 1250 B.C., roughly the era of the Trojan War and the biblical war of Deborah. The weapons and tactics were similar to those famous conflicts, the numbers mobilized equally impressive.

But in illiterate Northern Europe, no one chronicled the German battle in song and saga, with heroes’ names echoing down the centuries, and no one knew of the event until very recently.
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Frühestes bekanntes Fest der Menschheit war sorgfältig geplantes Event

News in Frühzeit des Menschen Noch keine Kommentare »
[b]
Jerusalem/Wien – Es war mit Sicherheit keine alltägliche Bestattung: Als vor 12.000 Jahren in der Hilazon-Tachtit-Höhle im westlichen Galiläa eine ältere Frau in ihr Grab gelegt wurde, dürfte das Anlass für ein großes Fest gewesen sein. Zahlreiche Schildkrötenpanzer und abgeschabte Tierknochen weisen auf einen opulenten Leichenschmaus mit mindestens drei Dutzend Teilnehmern hin. Die 2010 vorgestellten Funde gelten bis heute als das früheste bekannte Zeugnis für Festivitäten des modernen Menschen.[/b]
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Osnabrücker Studentenwohnheim gehörte der Hitlerjugend

News in Das Dritte Reich Noch keine Kommentare »
[b]
Osnabrück. 1938 entstand in schönster Lage am Haster Berg in Osnabrück ein Heim für die Hitler-Jugend, das Johann-Gossel-Heim. Es hat den Krieg überstanden und dient seit 1949 mit Unterbrechungen als Studentenwohnheim. Dem Studentenwerk ist die braune Vergangenheit des Gebäudes offenbar peinlich – es verschweigt sie in seinem Internetauftritt und spricht schwammig von einem „historischen Gebäude mit seiner wechselvollen Geschichte“.[/b]

Die Erziehung der Jugend im nationalsozialistischen Sinne genoss ab etwa 1937 höchste Priorität. Kein Aufwand erschien zu hoch, um den Jugendorganisationen des Regimes für ihre Zusammenkünfte zu Spiel, Sport und paramilitärischen Übungen ein repräsentatives Haus zu schaffen. Für die nördlichen Stadtteile Osnabrücks suchte man einen Standort am Waldrand des Haster Hohn aus, der vielfältige Naturerkundungen und Geländespiele ermöglichte.
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An der Mosel unterwarf Rom das freie Keltentum

News in Das Römische Reich 7 Kommentare »

Archäologen haben das dritte antike Schlachtfeld in Deutschland gefunden, nach Kalkriese und Harzhorn. Wie hier 70 n. Chr. der Aufstand der Treverer scheiterte, lässt sich heute rekonstruieren.


Wer einen Feind aufhalten muss, sucht sich dafür am besten eine Stelle aus, die leicht zu verteidigen ist. Das wusste natürlich auch Iulius Valentinus, ein junger Treverer von ungestümem Gemüt. Im Jahr 70 n. Chr. führte er einen Aufstand der keltischen Stämme aus dem Gebiet der Mosel, gegen die römische Herrschaft an.

Während der innenpolitischen Wirren der vorangegangenen Jahre und des Vier-Kaiser-Jahres 68/69 hatte das Imperium Romanum Truppen aus den Provinzen abziehen müssen; viele Einheimische der unterworfenen Gebiete sahen ihre Chance, das Joch der Fremdherrschaft abzuschütteln. Doch der neue Kaiser Vespasian hatte keineswegs vor, Unruhe an den Rändern des Reiches zuzulassen – und schickte seinen Schwiegersohn Petilis Cerialis nach Germania inferior, um Ruhe zu schaffen.

Die Treverer hatten die Stadt Augusta Treverorum besetzt, das heutige Trier. Cerialis, der laut dem Historiker Tacitus "kampfbegierig" war, sammelte seine Truppen für die fällige Strafexpedition im Legionslager Mogontiacum, dem heutigen Mainz. Von hier aus musste er nach Trier gelangen, um Valentinus zu schlagen. Immerhin eine Strecke von fast 140 Kilometern oder gut fünf Tagesmärschen.

Um schnell von Mogontiacum nach Augusta Treverorum zu gelangen, gab es zwei Wege, beides natürlich römische Militärstraßen. Die eine, eine Talstraße, verlief teilweise entlang der Mosel; etwas flussabwärts des heutigen Ortes Riol passierte sie eine Engstelle zwischen den Steilhängen eines Bergrückens und dem Fluss. Diese Stelle konnt leicht besetzt und gehalten werden, auch gegen eine Übermacht.
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Forscher sind Philistern auf der Spur

News in Judentum | Israel | Naher Osten 46 Kommentare »
[b]
Je feuchter desto besser, heißt die Devise für die Knochen. Die Zeit drängt. «Wir müssen sie wirklich rausholen, während sie noch feucht sind, sonst zerfallen sie zu Puder», sagt Daniel Master, Leiter der Ausgrabung, während Freiwillige mit Pinseln und Holzstäbchen Skelette freilegen.[/b]

«Nach jahrzehntelangen Untersuchungen dessen, was die Philister zurückgelassen haben, stehen wir endlich den Menschen von Angesicht zu Angesicht gegenüber», sagt Master an diesem Tag Ende Juni. «Mit der Entdeckung sind wir nahe daran, die Geheimnisse ihrer Herkunft zu entschlüsseln.» Seit 1985 haben Archäologen in der Nähe von Aschkelon nach Siedlungsüberresten der Philister gegraben. Dabei entdeckten sie unter anderem mehrere Tempel und ein Stadttor. 2013 stießen sie auf den Friedhof, wie erst jetzt bekannt wurde.
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Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 157

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Ein deutscher Vernichtungskrieg

News in Das Deutsche Kaiserreich 9 Kommentare »
Schlacht von Königgrätz
[b]
Vor 150 Jahren siegte Preußen in der Schlacht von Königgrätz über Österreich – ein epochales Ereignis, das Europa verändert hat.
Von Hilmar Sack.[/b]

Zeitgenossen fühlten sich an Waterloo erinnert: Als sich am 3. Juli 1866 der Pulverdampf nahe dem nordböhmischen Königgrätz, dem heutigen Hradec Králové, legt, ist nicht nur eine blutige Schlacht geschlagen; fast 8.000 Tote und 14.000 Verletzte blieben zurück. Der deutsch-deutsche Krieg hat mit der verheerenden Niederlage Österreichs gegen die preußische Armee auch politisch Weichen gestellt.
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Morbus K - Eine erfundene Krankheit rettete Juden vor dem KZ

News in Der Zweite Weltkrieg 1 Kommentar »
[b]
"Hustet, hustet": Das soll Doktor Borromeo 1943 zu den Juden gesagt haben, die sich im katholischen Fatebenefratelli-Krankenhaus in Rom versteckt hielten. Um seine vermeintlichen Patienten vor den Nazitruppen zu schützen, erfand der Arzt eine sehr gefährliche, sehr ansteckende Krankheit: Morbus K. Der Plan ging auf. Von Jan-Christoph Kitzler.[/b]

Spätestens seit Anfang September 1943 mit der deutschen Besatzung herrschte in Rom der Ausnahmezustand. Doch für die römischen Juden ist vor allem der 16. Oktober als Schicksalstag im Gedächtnis. Früh am Morgen begannen Nazitruppen mit der Razzia: Überall in der Stadt wurden Juden festgenommen für die Deportation, vor allem im Getto, wo die meisten lebten. Die Familie von Gabriele Sonnino war da schon untergetaucht, aber längst noch nicht in Sicherheit:
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7000 Jahre alte Reste eines Steinzeitdorfes entdeckt

News in Archäologie Noch keine Kommentare »

Zwischen Jena und Bürgel stoßen Archäologen auf Relikte einer Kultur von Ackerbauern und Viehzüchtern.



[IMG]http://media101.zgt.de.cdn.thueringer-allgemeine.de/content/80/25/91/5I/8025915ITOMV4DB_V4VQJIFGRQZQMSLABTUUIX511072016200/D0R0005624453.JPG[/IMG]
Grabungstechniker Thomas Queck präsentiert hier einen der schönsten Funde bisher: ein Steinbeil aus dem 6. Jahrtausend vor Christus. Foto: Wolfgang Hirsch

Bürgel. Mühsam quält sich die Fahrzeugschlange durch die lange Baustelle zwischen Jena und Bürgel. Einspurige Verkehrsführung kurz hinter Rodigast, die B 7 wird erneuert. Für die vermeintlichen Tiefbauarbeiter haben die Autofahrer kaum ei*nen Blick. Doch handelt es sich um ein Team des Thüringer Landesamtes für Denkmalpflege und Archäologie, das per Rettungsgrabung früheste Relikte abendländischer Zivilisation aus dem Boden birgt. Jungsteinzeit, die sogenannte Linienbandkeramik-Kultur. Die Ersten, die sesshaft wurden. Ausgerechnet sie verzögern den Straßenbau nun um etwa acht Wochen.
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Der lange Schatten von Bürgerkrieg und Diktatur

News in Südeuropa | Mittelmeerraum Noch keine Kommentare »
[b]
Vor 80 Jahren putschte General Francisco Franco gegen die spanische Republik. Ein dreijähriger, blutiger Bürgerkrieg begann. Der Konflikt prägt Spaniens Politik und Gesellschaft noch heute.[/b]

Keine königliche Ansprache, keine Verurteilung des Militärputsches und der darauf folgenden, fast vierzigjährigen Diktatur, keine Trauerfeier für die 500.000 Toten, die halbe Million Flüchtlinge: Am 18. Juli jährt sich der Beginn des Bürgerkrieges zum 80. Mal. Doch das offizielle Spanien schweigt.

Das liegt nicht daran, dass das Land nach den zweiten Wahlen in sechs Monaten immer noch damit beschäftigt ist, eine neue Regierung zu finden – am Dienstag tritt erstmals das Parlament zusammen: Spanien tut sich mit seiner Vergangenheit schwer, belässt Bürgerkrieg und Diktatur lieber im Ungewissen, statt sich einem zu allen Seiten gleichermaßen kritischen Dialog zu stellen.
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"Wer sich an den Kolonialismus erinnerte, hat ihn verklärt"

News in Die großen Kolonialreiche 13 Kommentare »
[b]
Vor mehr als 100 Jahren töteten deutsche Siedler 100.000 Herero. Man prahlte damit und doch wurde der Völkermord vergessen. Warum, erklärt Historiker Jürgen Zimmerer.
Interview: Alina Schadwinkel.[/b]

Gnadenlos hatten deutsche Truppen den Widerstand der Herero und Nama unterdrückt. Zwischen 1904 und 1908 töteten die kaiserlichen Streitkräfte gezielt bis zu 80.000 Menschen in Deutsch-Südwestafrika, dem heutigen Namibia. Erst jetzt hat die Bundesregierung in einem offiziellen Dokument eingestanden: Der Vernichtungskrieg war ein Völkermord.

[b]ZEIT ONLINE:[/b] Warum fällt es den Deutschen so schwer, mit der eigenen Geschichte umzugehen, selbst nach Eingeständnis des Holocaust?

[b]Jürgen Zimmerer:[/b] Es gibt gewissermaßen eine koloniale Amnesie: Deutschland war nur vergleichsweise kurz Kolonialmacht. Die Gebiete in Afrika gingen sehr früh verloren, die Verbrechen des Dritten Reiches haben die Erinnerungen daran überlagert. Nach 1945 scheint die Aufarbeitung des Holocaust alle Energie gebunden zu haben. Wer sich an den Kolonialismus überhaupt erinnerte, hat ihn oftmals verklärt.

[b]ZEIT ONLINE:[/b] Inwiefern?

[b]Zimmerer:[/b] Die Deutschen denken bei Kolonialisierung an den guten "weißen" Doktor im Urwald, der Medizin verteilt, oder den Missionar, der armen Mädchen im Baströckchen die "Zivilisation" bringt. Oder sie romantisieren die Siedler als Pioniere, die Straßen und Brücken gebaut haben. Der Tourismus in Namibia profitiert noch heute von dieser Vorstellung. Dabei wird ausgeblendet, auf welch rassistischer Grundlage dies geschah und wie viele Opfer es dafür auf afrikanischer Seite gab.
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Süße Spur: Vögel helfen Menschen bei der Honigsuche Wissenschaft

News in Afrika 6 Kommentare »
[b]
Den Honig für den einen, die Wachswaben für den anderen: Auf der Honigsuche kann es in Afrika zwischen Menschen und Wildvögeln zu ungewöhnlichem Teamwork kommen.[/b]

In Mosambik führt der Große Honiganzeiger, ein rund 20 Zentimeter langer Spechtvogel, Honigjäger durch trillernden Gesang und auffälliges Flugverhalten zu versteckten Bienenstöcken. Die Vögel fliegen auf bestimmte Lockrufe der Jäger hin sogar bewusst zu ihnen. Hintergrund: Honiganzeiger lieben Bienenwachs, kommen an die Waben jedoch nur heran, wenn Menschen diese aufgebrochen haben. Ein Forscherteam um Claire Spottiswoode von der britischen University of Cambridge hat nun berechnet, wie stark die Menschen von der Zusammenarbeit profitieren.
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(C) Daniel Oswald